Nose / Sinus / Allergy

Nose / Sinus / Allergy

Causes

Allergies of the nose result in sneezing, itching, runny and block nose. Sometimes there is eye, ear and throat itch. It can be due to inhalant airborne allergens or food allergies. Many adults may develop new allergies even if they were not afflicted previously. Untreated allergies increase the risk of sinusitis, chronic cough and asthma. Rhinosinusitis can result from acute or chronic nose passages inflammation, infection, polyps, anatomical nose and sinus structure abnormalities like deviated nasal septum and narrow sinus passages. Rhinosinusitis can also be aggravated by immune problems, poor general health, lack of important vitamins or minerals. Pregnancy may increase swelling in the nose and sinuses.(Read More: More Than a Tickle)(Read More: Beyond A Snort and Sniffle)(Read More: Is This A Cold, Flu, Allergy Or Sinusitis)

Importance

Allergy and rhinosinusitis causes discomfort and obstruct breathing, disturbing sleep. Rhinosinusitis may require long term medications and antibiotics, and have risks of eye, brain, teeth complications. Frontal and central headaches or eye pain may be due to severe sinusitis. Patients who are immunocompromised have increased risks of complications.

Investigations offered
  • Flexible nasoendoscopy to determine sinonasal anatomy and cause
  • Skin prick testing and blood RAST sampling to identify offending allergens for airbone and food allergens
  • Blood tests to identify systemic disorders or mineral deficiencies
  • Biopsy to exclude cancer or tumor in polyps
  • X-ray, CT and MRI scans to determine extent, complications and guide surgery
Treatments available

Medication (nasal rinses, topical/ oral antihistamines and decongestants, nasal steroid sprays, antibiotics)

Avoidance of the offending allergen tested positive reduces the need for over-dependence on medication.

Immunotherapy in new oral tablet, or the usual sublingual drops or injectable forms. This offers a chance for long term cure, desensitizing the body to the allergens, instead of just treating the symptoms arising from the allergen attacking the body.

Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) guided by special image-guidance system (IGS) CT scan protocol, precisely angled microdebriders and endoscopic micro-instruments allows for precise removal of diseased polyps, bone septations. Inflamed mucosa and mucopus/ fungal balls. This can be done without any external incisions, going through the nose. This real-time tracking of the anatomy and precision of instruments reduce risk to the eyes, base of skull, vessels and allow a more complete removal of disease.

Balloon Sinuplasty helps in cases where there is very limited sinus disease, and may be of some help to identify sinus openings in complex cases.

Large inferior turbinates, deviated nose bone
Cause

Inferior turbinates can be chronically hypertrophied from inflammation, allergic rhinitis or structural. The nose bone in the centre can be crooked from birth, a normal growth variation, or due to trauma.

Importance

These block the breathing, increase snoring and obstructive sleep apnea, and predisposes one to rhinosinusitis.

Investigations offered

Examination under good headlight with speculum. Flexible nasoendoscopy required for more detailed and posterior nose examination.

Treatment offered
  • Allergy avoidance and medications, nasal steroid sprays and decongestants
  • Radiofrequency or coblation reduction or partial turbinoplasty of inferior turbinates
  • Septoplasty to correct the crooked nose bone in teenage children
Tumors of the nose/ Nose cancer
Cause

Tumors can be non-cancerous like polyps, inverted papilloma, angiofibroma. Some tumors are cancerous, located in the nose, sinuses or further back in the nasopharynx. Even young children can have tumors like aggressive rhabdomyosarcomas, and the first presentation of angiofibromas are usually nose bleeds in teenage males.

Importance

Even non-cancerous tumors can erode important surrounding structures, and affect the eye, teeth and cause bleeding or block breathing. Cancerous tumors benefit from early detection and treatment. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the 6th most common cancer in Singapore, but less common in children compared to our adults.

Investigations offered
  • Examination under good headlight with speculum and flexible nasoendoscopy.
  • Biopsy of the tumor for histopathology in the clinic or under sedation.
  • Radiology examinations to determine extent and spread of tumor.
Treatment offered

Depending on the histology, local excision via endoscopic method or open excision may be needed. Nowadays, Image Guided Systems (IGS) for endoscopic surgery offers increased safety and completeness of tumor clearance. For cancerous tumors, chemotherapy and radiotherapy referrals may be needed.

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Nose / Sinus / Allergy